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Science, Vol 295, Issue 5555, 629-631 , 25 January 2002
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[DOI: 10.1126/science.1067053]

Policy Forum

Enhanced: Frontier Governance in Amazonia

D. Nepstad,* D. McGrath, A. Alencar, A. C. Barros, G. Carvalho, M. Santilli, M. del C. Vera Diaz [HN19]

Most tropical rainforests [HN1] have already been impoverished or converted to agriculture. Inaccessibility, however, has provided passive protection to the world's largest rainforest. As roads are paved into central Amazonia [HN2] in the coming years, the business-as-usual scenario of frontier expansion may provoke rapid deforestation [HN3], releasing several billion tons of carbon to the atmosphere, while increasing the occurrence of accidental forest fire, species loss, and deforestation-driven rainfall inhibition (1, 2).

However, economic development is vital, as most of the 17 million people in this region earn less than US$100 per month. We interpret many of the infrastructure investments (including road paving and river channelization) as inevitable, and the primary challenge as one of strengthening frontier management in the region. Recent trends in Brazil's land-use regulation and management capacity could potentially conserve 70 to 80% of the forest while fostering economic development. These fragile gains are threatened by institutional weaknesses and rural violence, but could presage unprecedented large-scale tropical forest conservation if sustained and strengthened [HN4].

A regional conservation strategy that builds on the conventional emphasis on parks and reserves and seeks to maintain most of the land forested is urgently needed. Large-scale forest conservation is essential because of the tight coupling between the Amazon rainforest (only 15% of which is deforested) and the regional climate system; continued transformation to pasture and cropland could disrupt the rainfall patterns that currently sustain these forests, their biological diversity, and agricultural production systems (3). Biological reserves currently protect only 4% of the region's forests, and must be expanded as part of this strategy. But, the challenge is to govern frontier expansion so that most forests remain standing and well managed, while addressing concerns for economic development. We report on key trends at federal, state, and local levels in which government and civil society are gradually developing the policies, technology, and institutional capacity to meet this challenge.

The central components of an emerging strategy of frontier governance are enforcement of existing legislation and local land-use planning, and these can be illustrated with the Cuiabá-Santarém highway [HN5] (BR-163) (see the figure). This road was first cut through the Amazon rainforest in 1974. It traverses one of the highest concentrations of bird diversity in all of Amazonia (4) and a landscape dominated by rock outcrops and rolling topography largely unsuitable for mechanized agriculture. One thousand kilometers of the highway were never paved, however, and forest logging and conversion to cattle pasture have proceeded slowly. Only 5% of the forests within 50 km of the road have been cleared, for example, compared with 26 to 58% of the forests along roads that were paved 20 to 30 years ago (1, 2).

Figure 1
The Cuiabá-Santarém highway corridor, soon to be paved. Through successful land-use regulation, demarcation of protected areas, local land-use planning, and improved land titling, most of the forests along this corridor might be conserved. The road slated for paving is orange. We conducted field research along the full length of the corridor. The shaded area indicates lands that fall within 100 km of the highway.

Representatives of an expanding soybean sector in northern Mato Grosso [HN6] (see the figure) are now pushing to complete pavement of the highway, which would save this sector $70 million per year in shipping costs (5, 6). Highway pavement would also reduce timber transport costs to both international and domestic markets for the 270 sawmills established along the BR-163 (see the figure), stimulating expansion of this industry, and increasing forest vulnerability to fire (7). Such savings could provide a source of Brazilian revenues (through taxes or highway tolls) to finance frontier governance and thus decrease its dependence on international funding.

Brazil's ambitious Amazon forest policy requires forest maintenance along streams and slopes and that at least 80% of rural properties be protected as forest reserves. It also requires licensing of deforestation, logging, and burning (8). These regulations have been difficult to enforce in the vast, remote frontiers of Amazonia, where government institutional capacity is limited. However, Mato Grosso state has made effective use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) [HN7] technology to enforce forest policy. Landholders wishing to clear forest must provide the coordinates of their property, superimposed on recent Landsat [HN8] imagery, to the state environmental agency. Properties totaling more than 10 million heactares--11% of the state--have been registered in this system. Deforestation permits have been denied to landholders who have exceeded the 20% deforestation limit on their property (9). The western Amazon state of Acre's "government of the forest" [HN9] has established a 15% cap on deforestation and is effectively promoting economic activities that depend on forests as it suppresses pasture expansion.

Significant progress is also being made in prevention and control of accidental fires. The Brazilian fire control program for Amazonia (PROARCO) [HN10] prohibits burning during the peak of the dry season. The program's implementation in 2000 was associated with a two- to fourfold reduction in the number of fires registered by satellite images from 1999 to 2000 throughout most of the heavily settled eastern and southern portion of Amazonia (10). This fire reduction cannot be explained on the basis of rainfall patterns.

The success of these regulatory efforts can be traced, in part, to the "environmental crimes" bill [HN11], passed by the Brazilian congress in 1998, which empowers the Brazilian environmental protection agency (IBAMA) [HN12] to levy fines and to impose jail sentences for illegal deforestation, burning, and logging activities. Armed with this legislation, IBAMA recently suspended 800 timber management plans approved in the state of Pará [HN13], nudging the region's burgeoning logging industry toward reduced impact forest management [HN14] (RIFM) practices (11), reducing fire risk (7). RIFM could provide jobs and revenues in Amazon frontiers well beyond the temporary boom-bust prosperity afforded by conventional, high-impact logging (12).

One-fourth of the forests along the Cuiabá-Santarém corridor could be protected from large-scale degradation by enforcing and strengthening the existing network of indigenous, extractive, and biological reserves (see the figure). The Kayapó indigenous groups [HN15] of south-central Pará state have successfully prevented encroachment by loggers, colonists, and ranchers throughout most of their 13 million-hectare reserve complex--bigger than any tropical park--and have avoided depletion of game species (13). The Tapajós national forest [HN16], one of three in the Cuiabá-Santarém corridor, has the first industrial timber concession in the Brazilian Amazon and is under close scrutiny. Reserve demarcation, monitoring, and enforcement of land-use restrictions could further strengthen this extensive reserve system.

One of the most promising trends in frontier governance is the growing capacity of municipal governments for environmental and development planning. This trend is favored by Brazil's decentralization of many federal and state responsibilities to municipal (município) governments, which receive a larger share of the federal budget than in any other Latin American country (14). Through the G-7 Pilot Program for Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests [HN17], state and municipal governments are working together to strengthen local institutional capacity for environmental planning and regulation, while also learning how to integrate local stakeholders into the planning process. Although municipal governments' capacity for effective land-use planning and development is still highly variable, the overall trend is positive. The long-term economic and ecological vitality of the BR-163 corridor will depend on how well local governments are able to provide the social, economic, and legal infrastructure that local populations need, while managing the region's forest, soil, and water resources.

Another important trend involves the government's efforts to take effective control of access to federal lands. In the past, frontier governance has been undermined by the black market through which public lands pass into the hands of land speculators, loggers, and ranchers (15). In the last few years, Brazil's land reform agency (INCRA) [HN18] nullified the titles of more than 20 million hectares of land claims. Seven million hectares of this land were recently transferred to IBAMA for designation as conservation areas (16). INCRA must expand their regional network of offices and increase staffing to consolidate control over access to Amazon forest lands.

Lack of ministerial collaboration in planning for the future could undermine the prospects for frontier governance. One hopeful sign is that two interministerial seminars were recently held in the Brazilian Congress to discuss the environmental effects of the infrastructure investments planned for Amazonia.

If successful, the trend toward increased frontier governance capacity could insure the conservation of most of the forests along the BR-163 corridor, while also fostering the sustainable development of the region's natural resources. However, powerful impediments to successful governance persist on the Amazon frontier. A bill to decrease the private property forest reserve from 80 to 50% is currently before the Brazilian Congress, against opposition by Brazilian environmental groups and many government officials. Corruption and instability still plague most frontier governmental institutions. The assassination of five rural leaders in 2001 perpetuates the rural violence that suppresses the emergence of democracy on the Amazon frontier.

However, recent trends among government agencies, private enterprise, and civil society provide evidence of an expanding political will in Brazil to manage Amazonia's abundant natural resources, protecting them from business-as-usual frontier expansion. The potential of these trends to defend public interests in the region's natural resources will only be realized, however, if they are recognized, applauded, and supported both financially and institutionally.

References and Notes

  1. G. Carvalho, A. C. Barros, P. R. S. Moutinho, D. C. Nepstad, Nature 409, 131 (2001) [Medline].
  2. D. Nepstad et al., Forest Ecol. Manag. 154, 395 (2001) [Abstract].
  3. M. H. Costa, J. A. Foley, J. Climate 13, 18 (2000).
  4. K. J. Zimmer et al., Ornithol. Monogr. 48, 887 (1997).
  5. Brazilian Institute of National Statistics and Geography (IBGE), Produção Agrícola Municipal, 1999 (Rio de Janeiro, IBGE, 2000].
  6. These conclusions are based on our interviews of soy producers in Mato Grosso.
  7. A. Holdsworth, C. Uhl, Ecol. Appl. 7, 713 (1997) [Abstract].
  8. Government of Brazil Medida Provisoria, Version 2080-631 [law].
  9. Governo do Estado de Mato Grosso, Fundação Estadual de Meio Ambiente (FEMA), Sistema de Controle Ambiental em Propriedades Rurais de Mato Grosso (Cuiabá-FEMA, 2001), 45 pp.
  10. We compared the number of fires detected by the NOAA-12 AVHRR sensor for 1999 and 2000 using data processed by A. Setzer, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais.
  11. P. Barreto, P. Amaral, E. Vidal, C. Uhl, Forest Ecol. Manag. 108, 9 (1998) [Abstract].
  12. R. R. Schneider, E. Arima, A. Verissimo, P. Barreto, C. Souza Jr., Sustainable Amazon: Limitations and Opportunities for Rural Development (Partnership Series no.1, World Bank, Brasília, 2000).
  13. B. Zimmerman, C. A. Peres, J. R. Malcolm, T. Turner, Environ. Conserv. 28, 10 (2001).
  14. W. Dillinger, S. B. Webb, "Fiscal management in federal democracies: Argentina and Brazil" (Policy Research Working Paper 2121, World Bank, Washington, DC, 1999) [World Bank].
  15. M. Schmink, C. Wood, Contested Frontiers in Amazonia (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1992) [publisher's information].
  16. See\~dicri\incra
  17. J. Benatti, D. Kaimowitz, A. Moreira, C. Azevedo-Ramos, P. Moutinho, and J. M. Cardoso da Silva commented on an earlier version; M. Ernst and P. Lefebvre prepared the figure. Financial support is from Conservation International/Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and U.S.-NASA as part of Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-Ecology) [Conservation International/Center for Biodiversity Science] [U.S. Agency for International Development] [LBA-Ecology].

D. Nepstad, D. McGrath, and G. Carvalho are at The Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), Woods Hole, MA 02543-0296, USA. All of the authors are with the Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia, (IPAM) Av. Nazaré, 669 Bairro: Nazaré, 66035-170 Belém, Pará, Brazil. D. McGrath is with the Universidade Federal Do Pará (UFPa) Av. Augusto Correa, no. 01, Campus da Universidade-Guamá, CEP 66.059, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dnepstad{at}

Related Resources on the World Wide Web

General Hypernotes

Dictionaries and Glossaries

The xrefer Web site provides scientific dictionaries and other reference works.

A glossary of biodiversity terms is provided by the World Resources Institute (WRI).

Web Collections, References, and Resource Lists

A map of Brazil is provided by the View from Above Web site of the National Geographic Society.

The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas, provides a collection of maps of Brazil.

The Foundation for Environmental Conservation provides a collection of links to Internet resources.

The Ecology WWW Page, maintained by A. Brach, Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herberia, is a searchable list of ecology resources on the Internet.

R. Ford, U.S. Agency for International Development, provides a collection of WWW Resources for Earth System Science Education.

The Google Web Directory provides sections on ecology and forests and rainforests.

The Environmental News Network provides news stories and features about environmental issues.

The Latin American Network Information Center, University of Texas, provides links to Internet environmental resources for Brazil and South America.

The Forest Conservation Portal from provides rainforest, forest, and biodiversity conservation news and information. A section on Brazil rainforest conservation news is provided, and the forest conservation links page includes a collection of Internet links for Brazil.

Rainforest Web provides information on rainforests, news, and Internet links.

Online Texts and Lecture Notes

The World Factbook 2001 of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency provides information about Brazil.

The U.S. Department of State provides background notes on Brazil.

The Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress provides a country study of Brazil.

The Forestry Division of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) provides a country profile for Brazil.

The Embassy in London of the República Federativa do Brasil provides English language information about Brazil including a section on the environment, as well as a guide to Brazil. Brazil in Focus is made available on the Web by the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations.

Wild World, presented by the National Geographic Society and the World Wildlife Fund, offers ecosystem profiles of terrestrial ecoregions of the world.

Biodiversity and Conservation is a hypertext book by P. Bryant, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine. A chapter on forests and deforestation is included.

M. Ritter, Department of Geography and Geology, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, provides a presentation on tropical forests for a physical geography course.

The International Programs Office of the USDA Forest Service offers a guide to tropical forest conservation.

General Reports and Articles

The FAO Forestry Division makes available The State of the World's Forests 2001. A section on international dialogue and global, regional, and national initiatives is included.

The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge is a 1997 report of WRI's Forest Frontiers Initiative. A regional overview of South America is included.

A 1995 book Amazonia - Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and its People by N. Smith et al. is made available on the Web by the United Nations University Press. A chapter on forest conservation and management is included.

The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development makes available a 1992 discussion paper by A. Diegues titled "The social dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: An overview."

The Sustainable Development Department of the Inter-American Development Bank makes available (in Adobe Acrobat format) a chapter by M. Dourojeann titled "The future of the Latin American natural forests," a chapter by C. Jaramillo and T. Kelly titled "Deforestation and property rights in Latin America, and a chapter by J. Tresierra titled "Rights of indigenous groups over natural resources in tropical forests" from the 1999 book Forest Resource Policy in Latin America. Also available is a paper by R. de Camino V. titled "Sustainable forest management in Latin America: Relevant actors and policies."

The 19 January 2001 issue of Science had an Policy Forum by W. Laurance et al. titled "The future of the Brazilian Amazon"; a collection of dEbate responses are available. The 7 July 2000 issue had a News Focus article by B. Wuethrich titled "Combined insults spell trouble for rainforests." The 28 August 1998 issue had a Perspective by R. Chazdon titled "Tropical forests--Log 'em or leave 'em?"

Numbered Hypernotes

  1. Tropical rainforests. WRI offers a presentation on tropical forests. Exploring the Tropics is an educational presentation of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Live from the Rainforest is a educational presentation of the Passport to Knowledge project. The Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative at the Department of Geography, Michigan State University, provides the Rain Forest Report Card; maps of the Brazilian Amazon are included. E. Iglich, Department of Biology, Western Maryland College, Westminster, provides a presentation on tropical rainforests in lecture notes for an ecology course. The Global Change Project, University of Michigan, provides lecture notes on tropical forests for a course on human impacts on global change. "Rainforest structure and diversity" is a chapter from A Neotropical Companion by J. Kricher that is made available on the Web by the publisher, Princeton University Press. The 26 January 2001 issue of Science had an Enhanced Perspective by D. Burslem, N. Garwood, and S. Thomas titled "Tropical forest diversity--The plot thickens." The December 2001 issue of Forest Ecology and Management was a special issue "New Directions in Tropical Forest Research."

  2. Amazonia. Journey into Amazonia is a presentation of the Public Broadcasting System. Amazon Life and Exploring the Vast Amazon are student projects available from ThinkQuest. The Amazônia Web site from the Friends of the Earth Amazonia Program provides news and other resources about the Amazon region. The Brazilian Embassy in London offers presentations on tropical forests and on the Amazon forest. Brazil in Focus offers a presentation on the Amazon forest. The Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change (CIPEC), Indiana University, offers a presentation on its research in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. Deforestation in Amazonia. WRI offers presentations on forest ecosystems and deforestation. The Tropical Rainforest Information Center offers a presentation on deforestation. The World Rainforest Movement Web site offers a presentation on deforestation and its causes; a collection of articles and links about Brazil is included. The July 2000 issue of Geographical Magazine had an article by N. Middleton titled "Total tropical travesty." The 8 April 1999 issue of Nature had an article by D. Nepstad et al. titled "Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire"; BBC News provides a news article by A. Kirby about this research titled "Amazon forest loss estimates double." NASA's Earth Observatory provides a presentation by G. Urquhart et al. on tropical deforestation. A study titled "Avança Brasil: The Environmental Costs for Amazonia" is made available by IPAM (Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia); the presentation is also available from the Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC). The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) makes available a report "Monitoring of the Brazilian Amazon forest by satellite 1999-2000." BBC News had a 25 May 2001 article titled "Amazon destruction surges" and a 25 June 2001 article by A. Kirby titled "Amazon forest 'could vanish fast'." The Environmental and Societal Impacts Group of the National Center for Atmospheric Research provides a 1997 report by M. Glantz, A. Brook, and P. Parisi titled "Rates and processes of Amazon deforestation." The Trade and Environment Database, American University, includes a case study on Brazil deforestation and logging; the associated Inventory of Conflict and Environment includes a case study on Amazon deforestation and Brazil land problems.

  4. Brazil's environmental policies. The Brazilian Embassy in Washington offers an information page with links to resources on environmental issues; a report by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment titled "Sustainable Amazon" is provided. Brazil in Focus includes a section on the Brazilian environment. The Brazilian Embassy in London provides information about the government's forestry policy. The Office for International Affairs of the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment provides an overview of the environment. BBC News had a 25 January 2001 article titled "Brazil to re-examine Amazon project." The World Bank makes available (in Adobe Acrobat format) a 1995 working paper by R. Schneider titled "Government and the economy on the Amazon frontier" and a 2001 case study by D. Mahar and C. Ducrot titled "Land-use zoning on tropical frontiers: Emerging lessons from the Brazilian Amazon." The Operations Evaluation Department of the World Bank issued a July 2000 report titled "Brazil - Forests in the balance: Challenges of conservation with development." The International Institute for Environment and Development provides information about Brazil related to the institute's sustainable private sector forestry project.

  5. Paving the Cuiabá-Santarém highway. Brazil in Focus includes information about the cities of Cuiabá and Santarém. The Brazilian Embassy in London provides information about the cities of Cuiabá and Santarém. The Cuiabá-Santarém highway is shown on a map of Brazil available from the World Atlas Web site. The IPAM/WHRC presentation on Avança Brasil includes a section with maps of proposed highway improvements and their effects. The 6 October 2000 issue of Time had an article by E. Linden titled "The road to disaster" about the threat of highways to the rainforest. BBC News provides a 19 January 2001 article titled "Roads lead to Amazon 'destruction'." The Forest Conservation Portal provides an article by J. Vidal titled "Highways to hell: Is the Amazon rainforest finished?"

  6. Information about Mato Grosso is provided by Brazil in Focus. The Brazilian Embassy in London provides information about Mato Grosso. The November 1999 issue of Brazzil had an article about Mato Grosso titled "Welcome to the frontier." The 10 July 2001 issue of the New York Times had an article by J. Rich about soy production in Mato Grosso titled "Soy growers in Brazil shadow U.S. farmers." The July 2000 issue of Progressive Farmer had an article by J. Patrico titled "The land boom in Brazil: In Mato Grosso, you'll find plenty of soybeans, cotton, corn -- and faces of new competition." Amazonia Web site of the European Working Group on Amazonia offers an article titled "Brazil: Another route for soya export, paved roads, hidrovias and ports."

  7. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). A Remote Sensing Tutorial is made available by the Applied Information Sciences Branch, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The Remote Sensing Core Curriculum is sponsored by the American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. The Remote Sensing Advanced Technology Web site offers a collection of tutorials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) offers an information page about GIS. provides an introduction to GIS. CIPEC provides information about its use of GIS and remote sensing. The FAO Sustainable Development Department offers a presentation titled "Geographic information systems in sustainable development."

  8. A presentation on Landsat is offered by NASA's Earth Observatory. The Earth Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center offers a Landsat Program information page. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides the Landsat 7 Gateway. USGS maintains a Landsat 7 Web site.

  9. Acre's "government of the forest." Information about Acre is included in Brazil in Focus. The Brazilian Embassy in London provides information about Acre. The World Wildlife Fund offers a presentation about environmental preservation in Acre and an interview with the governor of Acre titled "Jorge Viana: Tapping a forest heritage."

  10. Amazon fires and PROARCO. The Brazilian Embassy in London offers information about forest fires in tropical forests. Brazil in Focus includes a section on timber burning. IPAM offers a presentation on fire in the Amazon. INPE provides information about monitoring vegetation fires in Brazil; a large collection of Internet links is provided. The UNEP Global Resource Information Database, São José dos Campos, Brazil, offers information about PROARCO. IBAMA provides an overview of PROARCO (in Portuguese and English).

  11. Environmental crimes law. The Brazilian Embassy in Washington provides the translated text of the environmental crimes law. The Office for International Affairs of the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment provides an information page on the environmental crimes law with the text of the law and associated decrees.

  12. IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis) is part of Brazil's Ministry of the Environment. The Lycos Environment New Service had a 33 January 2001 article about IBAMA titled "Brazil chooses environmentalist to head top agency."

  13. Information about Pará is included in Brazil in Focus. The Brazilian Embassy in London provides information about Pará.

  14. Reduced-impact forestry practices. The Center for International Forestry Research provides a section on reduced-impact logging in its 1998 Annual Report. The FAO Forestry Division makes available a model code of forest harvesting practice as well as other publications on forest management. The Tropical Forest Foundation makes available a report by T. Holmes et al. titled "Financial costs and benefits of reduced-impact logging in the eastern Amazon."

  15. Kayapó indigenous people. The Sociedade Internacional de Lingüística, Brazil, offers information about the Kayapó. Hands Around the World offers a profile of the Kayapó indians. A student presentation on the Kayapó was prepared for an anthropology course taught by A. Galt, Anthropology Program, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. The Projeto Pinkaití Web site makes available an article by B. Zimmerman et al. titled "Conservation and development alliances with the Kayapó of southeastern Amazonia, a tropical forest indigenous people."

  16. Tapajós national forest. IBAMA provides a map of national forest locations as well as a map of Pará showing the location of Tapajós national forest. Wild World presented by the National Geographic Society and the World Wildlife Fund offers a presentation about the Tapajós-Xingu moist forests. Background information on the forest is included in a report by J. Tanner et al. titled "The potential demand for ecotourism in the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil," which is available from the Economics of Forest Protection and Management Unit of the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The LBA-ECO Web site makes available a report about site scouting in the Tapajós national forest.

  17. G-7 Pilot Program for Conservation of Brazilian Rainforest. The World Bank provides information about the Pilot Program for Conservation of Brazilian Rainforest; the report (in Adobe Acrobat format) of the July 2001 meeting of the International Advisory Group for the program is available. GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit) offers a presentation on the pilot program.

  18. INCRA land reform agency. INCRA is the Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária. The Lycos Environment News Service had a 11 January 201 article titled "This land is our land, Brazil tells squatters." The Land Policy Network of the World Bank makes available a draft 1998 report titled "Making negotiated land reform work " with a section on land reform in Brazil. The FAO Sustainable Development Department makes available a 1996 article by P. Groppo titled "Agrarian reform and land settlement policy in Brazil: Historical background."

  19. D. Nepstad, D. McGrath, and G. Carvalho are at the Woods Hole Research Center, MA. D. McGrath is also with the Universidade Federal Do Pará (UFPa), Belém, Pará, Brazil. All of the authors are with the Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia (IPAM), Belém.

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Volume 295, Number 5555, Issue of 25 Jan 2002, pp. 629-631.
Copyright © 2002 by The American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.